1. What is Executive Order 11246 (EO11246)?
An executive order is equivalent to a law, until rescinded by the Congress. Issued by President Lyndon Johnson in 1965, EO 11246 forbids any organization from receiving federal money if they practice discrimination. It is enforced through the Labor Department’s Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP). It is an extremely comprehensive and powerful law.
2. Was EO11246 enforced to break the glass ceiling for APAs?
No. The enforcement of laws depends on politics, strange as it may sound. EO 11246 has been enforced for all Americans except for Asian Americans.
3. Did a glass ceiling exist for blacks and women, and how did they pierce it?
They broke their respective glass ceiling with the help of EO 11246, after they toiled to acquire sufficient political clout to induce politicians to help them. Both private and government studies have shown EO 11246’s effectiveness for blacks and women. (See, e.g., Leonard, Jonathan, 1984. “The Impact of Affirmative Action Regulation and Equal Employment Law on Black Employment” Journal of Economic Perspective .4:47-64.)
To see evidence that the glass ceiling is much worse for Asian Americans than for blacks, women, or any other group: http://www.80-20initiative.net/news/preselect2008_attachmentA.asp.
4. How Does Enforcement of E.O. 11246 benefit me?
Within 10 years of the enforcement of EO 11246 for AsAms., the number of AsAm executives/administrators/managers/senior-partners is estimated to rise by 3 fold in mainstream institutions. Even assuming that you don’t work in a mainstream institution, just remember that A RISING TIDE LIFTS ALL SHIPS.